Concrete mixing station is a kind of electromechanical equipment that measures cement, water, aggregate, admixture, admixture and other materials according to the requirements of concrete ratio, and then mixes to become qualified concrete. The concrete mixing station includes material transportation, metering, storage, mixing, auxiliary and control systems. Concrete mixing stations are mainly used for railways, kilometers, bridges, airports, tunnels, hydropower and water conservancy projects, soil industry, mining and civil building construction, and the production of commercial concrete and concrete products. There are many layouts of concrete mixing plants with different specifications. According to different uses, it can be divided into hydraulic station, nuclear power station, high-speed railway station, pipe pile station, engineering station and commercial mixing station; according to the convenience of relocation, it can be divided into mobile station and fixed station; according to the number of host configuration It is a dual-machine station and a single-machine station.
Development history of mixing plant
1. History of foreign development
In 1796, the British Aspartin invented the "Portland Cement" and the British J. Parker invented the "Roman Cement", the concrete mixing plant was born. In the early days, the concrete mixing plant used a single-machine mixing method, and it did not enter the centralized mixing mode until it was applied to the coagulation of commodities. The first commercial concrete coagulation in Germany was first used in Germany. Its world's first commercial concrete mixing plant was established in Stasberg in 1903. At the beginning of the station construction, dump trucks or mobile dump trucks were used to transport the concrete, which made it difficult to guarantee the quality of the concrete. From the 1960s to the 1970s, the economic development of all countries in the world was rapid, and commercial concrete has also developed rapidly. By 1973, there were 3,533 commercial concrete mixing plants in Japan and 10,000 in the United States. From the 1980s to the 1990s, Japanese commercial concrete fell by 21% compared with 1973, tending to saturation. To date, the number of Japanese mixing plants has remained at around 5,000.
2. China's development history
The concrete mixing plant started late in China. It began to produce vertical shaft vortex mixers in the mid-1960s, horizontal shaft mixers in the early 1980s, and planetary vertical shaft mixers in the mid-1990s, only in the 1980s and 1990s. Only then has it achieved rapid development. In the mid-1980s, with the rapid development of the national economy, concrete mixing plants developed rapidly. At this time, the main mixing machine of the mixing station is mainly single and double horizontal shafts, and the weighing is mainly electronic scales and mechanical electronic scales. The feeding methods include tape conveyor feeding, cantilever shovel, and lifting bucket feeding. The system has industrial control computer, single chip and other forms.
Finished product classification of concrete mixing plant
The concrete mixing plant has various installation forms. Generally, it can be divided into mobile mixing plant, fixed mixing plant, shipborne mixing plant, and foundation-free mixing plant according to the fixed form. The mobile mixing station has good mobility and can be moved at any time. It is suitable for all kinds of construction sites where the amount of concrete is not large and the construction period is short. Therefore, it is usually necessary to equip a walking device. Fixed mixing plants are fixed on the basis of equipment by bolting or welding. They are mainly used in large prefabricated component plants, commercial concrete plants, and hydraulic engineering sites. The production capacity of such mixing plants is generally large. Ship-mounted mixing plants are generally used for cross-river bridge construction and large-span sea-crossing projects. This type of mixing equipment is suitable for the construction of concrete in wide waters away from the land. It can move with the barge in the construction waters, and all types of concrete can be mixed. The installation of the base frame of the foundation-free mixing plant is not connected to the base of the equipment site where it is located. The equipment is quickly disassembled and installed, and the amount of foundation construction is small. It is generally fixed on the installation base frame.
2. Classification according to the characteristics of the concrete produced
According to the characteristics of the concrete produced, it can be divided into hydraulic stations, nuclear power stations, commercial concrete stations, high-speed rail stations, etc. Hydraulic station refers to the mixing station mainly used for mixing dam concrete production. The concrete used for auxiliary facilities of power stations such as culverts, slopes and roads is not much different from that of general engineering concrete. The concrete aggregate size of the hydropower dam is large, and it requires a large amount of aggregate gradation. In order to enable the mixing host of this type of mixing station to withstand the impact of large pieces of material, the number and angle of its mixing arms have been carried out. Some special arrangements.
The concrete required for the construction of nuclear power plants is generally divided into two categories: conventional islands and nuclear islands. The performance of the concrete required for nuclear islands is high, and the concrete poured is thick and large. Therefore, it is necessary to equip the ice-making system with the temperature and mixing of the machine The process has special requirements.
The commercial concrete station is used to produce ordinary commercial concrete. It belongs to the most common concrete mixing equipment and has the widest range of applications. High-speed railway stations produce high-performance concrete mainly for high-speed railway construction. The high-speed rail mixing station must be measured separately to meet the high requirements for the measurement accuracy of various materials. The production process of concrete conforming to the construction of high-speed rail is complicated, and the mixing cycle is relatively long, generally 2-3 companions for ordinary commercial mixing stations. Generally speaking, the mixing efficiency is lower than ordinary commercial mixing stations, only 1/3 to 1/2 of ordinary commercial concrete stations.
3. Technology status of China's mixing plant
Over the past 30 years, manufacturers in Germany, the United States, Japan and other countries have done a lot of research work on concrete mixing plants, using a large number of new processes, new technologies and new materials to promote the continuous development of concrete machinery. At present, the technical characteristics of concrete mixing plants in foreign countries mainly focus on environmental protection issues and strengthen quality control. With the promotion and popularization of commercial concrete in domestic large and medium-sized cities, the concrete mixing plant, a necessary equipment for producing concrete, has also developed rapidly. So far, my country has been able to produce various mixing plants with a productivity of 60-300m3/h. Many mixing plants of Nanfang Road Machinery and other major domestic manufacturers have reached or exceeded the technical level of imported concrete mixing plants. Specifically, this is mainly reflected in the following 6 aspects:
1. High reliability
The key components of the concrete mixing station, such as the main mixing machine, screw conveyor, as well as the main electrical control components and pneumatic components, have been quite stable in performance, and the reliability and service life have been significantly improved.
2. High degree of automation control
Most of the control systems are relatively advanced and stable, and the degree of automation is generally high. Especially in recent years, the widespread application of ERP system can not only monitor the operation of the entire station in real time, but also greatly improve the management level of customers' production and operation. Most of the mixing stations are controlled by industrial computers, which can be controlled automatically or manually. The operation is relatively simple and convenient.
3. Higher production capacity
At present, the emergence of double-link stations and multi-link stations has greatly improved the production capacity of major concrete companies, and fundamentally solved the problem of insufficient production capacity of single stations.
4. High measurement accuracy
The measurement accuracy of the concrete mixing station is divided into 4 aspects, namely aggregate, cement (or admixture), water and admixture, of which the accuracy of aggregate can generally be controlled within 2%, cement (or admixture), water 1. The accuracy of admixtures can generally be controlled within 1%.
5. Good mixing quality and high efficiency
When the widely-used double-horizontal shaft mixing host is working, the transmission mechanism drives the two mixing shafts to rotate synchronously and reversely, and the mixture moves radially and axially in the middle of the tank to form convection, thereby improving the mixing quality.
6. The mixing host has been basically realized in China
In recent years, many manufacturers of mixing plants in my country have developed a variety of mainframes, including Nanfang Road Mixing Mainframes, by absorbing foreign mainframe technology, which has solved the problem of unstable quality of domestic mixing mainframes, thereby greatly reducing the cost of domestic mixing plants.
4. Future development trend of products
Despite the rapid development of concrete mixing plants in recent years, there are still some deficiencies in its reliability, safety, environmental protection and humanization. In the era of "Internet +", people have put forward higher requirements for the intelligence of concrete mixing plants. Therefore, in the end, concrete mixing plants will be further developed in terms of intelligence, environmental protection, high efficiency, and reliability.
1. The degree of intelligence is getting higher and higher
Driven by the "Internet +", the concrete mixing plant needs to establish a complete ERP management system, GPS scheduling system, and integration of the mixing plant control system. By opening up the online function of the concrete mixing plant, the product data can be uploaded to realize remote control, fault diagnosis, program upgrade, maintenance and so on of the concrete mixing plant.
2. Continuous development of environmental protection technology
Environmental protection technology has always been one of the core technologies of concrete mixing plants and an important factor affecting product performance. In the future, more environmental protection technologies will be widely used in concrete mixing plants, such as combined dust removal technology, residual concrete and wastewater recycling technology, waterproof and oil-proof dust removal cloth technology, intelligent pulse dust removal technology and intelligent control spray dust reduction Technology, etc.
3. Wide application of energy-saving technology
Energy saving is an important indicator for the environmental protection of concrete mixing plants. In the future, frequency conversion energy-saving technology will gradually be expanded from screw machines to belt conveyors, and even the motors of main mixing machines. At the same time, more energy-efficient new materials, new technologies, new processes, new energy, etc. will also be gradually applied to concrete mixing plants.
4. Production efficiency keeps improving
With the continuous improvement of the production efficiency requirements of concrete mixing plants, concrete mixing plants with high efficiency will continue to emerge. With the continuous improvement of the design of the mixing host and the wide application of the double intermediate warehouse technology, the production efficiency of the concrete mixing plant will be further improved in the future.
5. More suitable for concrete development
In the future, high-performance concrete with obvious advantages in construction and economic performance will become the market development trend. Therefore, concrete production equipment needs to meet the development needs of coagulation. Designers can only effectively guide the technical upgrading of concrete mixing plants, continuously improve the quality of concrete production, and reduce production costs, only by mastering new processes and formulations for concrete production.
6. The trend of modular design is obvious
Based on the relative independence of the main key components of the concrete mixing plant and the characteristics of diversified customer needs, the modular design trend will be more obvious in order to improve the efficiency of the concrete mixing plant's program design and product reliability. When designing the overall and key components of a specific coagulation upper mixing plant, we can select the appropriate key components for modular "assembly" design according to the individual needs of customers.
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